Incandescent bulbs are extremely inefficient, but a very inexpensive light source. When power is applied, the filament glows, which generates heat, that produces light (incandescence).
When there are no more particles to burn, the light bulb burns out, which typically takes place 800-1000 hours into the life. Incandescents, also, produce a lot of heat; they produce 90% heat and 10% light.
Thomas Edison is well-known as "the inventor of the light bulb," but in reality, he is only one of several researchers that created electrical incandescent lamps in the 1870s. These researchers include Joseph Swan, Frederick DeMoyleyns, and St. George Lane-Fox in England, as well as Moses Farmer, Hiram Maxim, and William Sawyer in the US.
What makes Edison’s contribution to electric lighting so extraordinary is that he didn’t stop with improving the bulb. He developed a whole suite of inventions that made the use of light bulbs practical.
They are much less energy efficient than most types of electric light sources. They have been replaced in many applications by fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), high-intensity discharge lamps, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs).